Technologies in the R2R-CIGS project

The objective of the R2R-CIGS project is to develop roll-to-roll (R2R) processes and systems to scale up manufacturing of high efficiency flexible solar modules. The project's main drivers to increase cost-effectiveness of flexible solar modules are to further roll-to-roll processes at various stages needed to manufacture flexible solar modules based on high efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin-film technology.

Main technologies

Thin-film deposition processes

  • Physical vapour deposition processes for high efficiency CIGS thin-film absorber layers
  • Atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes for various layers that constitute thin-film solar cells
  • Fast ALD at atmospheric pressure
  • Cadmium-free buffer layer development using R2R spatial ALD technologies, ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and evaporation deposition
  • R2R processes for deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films (sheet resistance:10 ohm/sq, light transmittance: 85%)

Thin-film deposition systems

  • R2R manufacturing of CIGS thin-films using a physical vapour deposition process. This technology is transferred from laboratory processes that demonstrated record cells featuring nanoscale composition grading.
  • R2R ALD systems for manufacturing of various thin-film layers

Encapsulation technologies

  • R2R spatial ALD of moisture barrier layers with low water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) for CIGS flexible solar modules
  • Coating processes for barrier layers
  • Barrier layer materials
  • Lamination processes applicable to R2R manufacturing

Laser scribing processes

  • Laser scribing of thin-film layers on various substrate materials enabling monolithic interconnection of solar cells to form solar modules
  • Laser scribing of thin-film layers on extremely lightweight and flexible polyimide substrates

Laser scribing systems

  • R2R automatic systems for laser scribing of the monolithic interconnects of thin-film flexible solar modules
  • Real-time automated alignment and tracking components for R2R laser scribing


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